Fundamentals

  1. Sodium Glucose Pump

    1. Sodium (Sod) and Glucose (Glu) bind to the Transporter Protein, driven by high sodium concentrations in the Small Intestine.
    2. This dual binding causes the Transport Protein to change shape, delivering sodium and glucose into the Cell Internals. At the same time, water moves into the Cell Internals by osmosis.
    3. Sodium and glucose are both actively transported out of the Cell into the blood, along with water. The result: rapid hydration!    

    Rapid Rehydration depends on:

    • High sodium: 45 – 80mmol/litre
    • Low sugar: 2 – 3% glucose
    • Hypotonic solution: Osmolality at 240-280 mOsm/kg
  2. Post Exercise Recovery – Hydration and Electrolyte Replacement

    The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive dehydration (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) and changes in electrolyte balance, so that an athlete’s performance is not compromised. While 2% dehydration is the commonly advised threshold, experts have shown that even at 1% dehydration in warm conditions, cardiovascular strain increases and power production is reduced. 

    The Hydralyte Sports formula and dosage instructions are designed to continuously replace the lost fluid and electrolytes during exercise. Exercising athletes are able to calculate their sweat rate (Litres per hour) for a particular sport and intensity.  

    As long as fluid replacement has kept pace with sweat losses, there is no need to drink additional Hydralyte Sports for post –exercise recovery. But, many athletes may not fully hydrate during exercise. Check for dehydration symptoms –particularly dry mouth and thirst - and the actual volume of fluid consumed. Take some additional Hydralyte Sports and/or fresh water, as necessary.  
  3. Relief from Muscle Cramps

    What is the trigger for cramping during and after exercise?
    A variety of causes for exercise-induced cramping have been suggested. These include dehydration, electrolyte loss, muscle fatigue, nerve fatigue, and accumulation of metabolites. Athletes susceptible to muscle cramps are often heavy and/or salty sweaters

    Practical steps can be taken to deal with two major triggers of muscle cramping:
    Potential Cause of Muscle Cramping Prevention and Treatment(5)
    Muscle overload and fatigue Relieved by stretching, massage and modifying exercise intensity
    Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance Adequate hydration with a fluid of high sodium chloride concentration (Hydralyte Sports)

    Note: Sodium concentration of sweat is typically in the range of 900-1400mg/L. Hydralyte Sports contains 1150mg/L sodium.


    What about other ingredients for cramping?
    • Magnesium supplementation has been suggested for the prevention of muscle cramps.
    •  Hydralyte Sports contains more than enough magnesium to replace losses in sweat.
    • The concentration of magnesium in Hydralyte Sports has been limited because high doses of magnesium can lead to stomach discomfort – not at all helpful to an athlete!
  4. Hydralyte Sports and carbohydrates for exercise

    Exercise intensity can be described in several ways. The need for additional fuel carbohydrate depends on both exercise intensity and duration4. The table below provides some general guidelines on additional carbohydrate needs, based on a published classification of exercise intensity3
    Exercise Intensity Duration Oxygen uptake as % VO2 Max Example Additional Carbohydrates required
    Low Up to 5 hrs
    25% Walking Apart from normal snacks, Hydralyte Sports provides sufficient sugars
    Medium
    Up to 1 hr 65% The pace chosen for a training run of 1-3 hrs duration Not required. Hydralyte Sports and muscle glycogen provides sufficient sugars
    Medium 1 hr +
    65% As above After the first hour consume 30-60g carbohydrates per hour, in addition to Hydralyte Sports
    High - steady or intermittent
    45min +
    65-85% High paced sports As above
  5. Additional information about carbohydrates

    Adults have reserves of energy that include glycogen (in muscle and liver), plasma (blood) free fatty acids, muscle triglycerides and plasma glucose. When an athlete is properly “carbohydrate loaded”, there are significant reserves of glycogen available (350-500g) for fuel. This glycogen reserve is particularly useful for medium to high intensity exercise.

    Carbohydrate source options include maltodextrin-based gels, energy and chocolate bars, cakes, banana6

    What are the types of carbohydrates?

    Glucose, sucrose and maltodextrins appear to be equally effective in maintaining blood glucose concentrations and for carbohydrate oxidation. Liquids are easy to ingest during exercise.  

    Fructose does not appear to offer any benefit over glucose for oxidation, due to the lower rate of conversion to glucose. High intake of fructose may lead to gastrointestinal discomfort.

    Many elite athletes choose to consume more appealing carbohydrate foods such as energy bars, biscuits and cakes5. These offer the advantages of superior taste and enjoyment.  

    Low glycemic index foods (e.g. starch-containing) are considered inferior to high glycemic foods (e.g. glucose and maltodextrin) during exercise because of the slow rate of catabolism to simple sugars3.